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Hegel and his time
by Kai Froeb


 1750  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  1760  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  1770  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
 1780  81 82 83 84 85 86 88 88 89  1790  91 92 93 94 95 96 98 98 99  1800  01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
 1810  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  1820  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  1830  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
 1840  41

Jun 28: Rousseau dies

Year Hegel Other

War of Austrian Succession ends
Peace of Aachen

Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh
Montesquieu: On the Spirit of Laws
Klopstock: Oden
Klopstock: Messias
Feb 6: Adam Weishaupt is born
Jeremy Bentham is born


Goethe is born

Mirabeau is born


The Little Ice Age (1500-1850) reaches its peak
Sep 14: The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar
Rousseau's essay: Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
Jul 28: Johann Sebastian Bach dies
Karl August von Hardenberg is born
Knigge is born

1753   Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod
Lazare Carnot is born

Beginning of the French and Indian War in North America 

Christian Wolff dies
Feb 2: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand is born
Aug 23: Louis XVI is born
Karl Friedrich von Steiger is born

1755   First English dictionary is published by Samuel Johnson
Nov 1: Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake
Winckelmann: Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst ("edele Einfalt und stille Größe")
Lessing: Miss Sara Sampson
Montesquieu dies
Nov 2: Marie Antoinette is born
Nov 17: later Louis XVIII of France is born
1756   Begin of Seven Year War (Prussia vs. Austria, England vs.France)
Jan 27: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born
1757   Pantheon built in Paris
Marquis de Lafayette is born
Stein is born
1758   Karl Leonhard Reinhold is born
May 6: Maximilian Robespierre is born
Sep 29: Horatio Nelson is born
1759   Jan 15: The British Museum opens
Adam Smith: Theory of Moral Sentiments
Voltaire: Candide
Apr 14: Händel dies
Oct 28: Danton is born
Baron Maximilian von Montgelas is born
Friedrich Schiller is born

Russian army briefly occupies Berlin and Königsberg

Claude Henri de Saint-Simon is born


Jan 16: British capture Pondicherry, India from the French

Gottlob Ernst Schulze ("Aenesidemus") is born
May 3: August von Kotzebue is born


Jan 4: England declares war on Spain & Naples
Catherine the Great became empress of Russia after the death of Peter III

Mozart: first public concert in Vienna (6 years old)
Rousseau: 'Social Contract', 'Emile'
J.G. Fichte is born

1763    End of Seven Year War
1764   Feb 15: St. Louis (USA) is established
1765   Stamp Act
Mendelsohn: Phaedon or on the Immortality of the Soul
Mar 27: Franz Xaver von Baader is born
Wilhelm von Humboldt is born
August Wilhelm von Schlegel is born
1766   Lessing: Laocoon
Feb 14: Thomas Robert Malthus is born
Sep 6: John Dalton is born
Niethammer is born
1767   Lessing: Minna von Barnhelm, Hamburgische Dramaturgie
Georg Philipp Telemann dies
Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just is born
August Wilhelm Schlegel is born
1768   Spinning Jenny invented
1st vol. of 1st Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica published
Begin of Cook's first voyage
Nov 21 Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleirmacher is born
Karl Ludwig von Haller is born
1769 Sep 29: Hegel's parents, Georg Ludwig and Maria Magdalena marry Aug 15: Napolen Bonaparte is born
Alexander von Humboldt is born
1770 G.W.F. Hegel is born Captain James Cook explores the east coast of Australia and claimes it for Great Britain
Kant becomes Professor in Königsberg
Baron Karl Sigmund von Altenstein is born
Ludwig van Beethoven is born
Friedrich Hölderlin is born
W.T. Krug is born
J.H.K. Hengstenberg is born

Beginning of the French and Indian War in North America 

3rd and last vol. of 1st Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica published
Discovery of Oxygen
Goethe: Urfaust
Aug 14: Sir Walter Scott is born
Robert Owen is born


1st division of Poland

Last part of Diderot's Enceclopedie published
Lessing: Emilia Galotti
Novalis is born
Friedrich Von Schlegel is born

1773 his sister, Christiane, is born
Hegel goes to the deutsche Schule

English Tea Act is answerd by Boston Tea Party (Dec 16)
Prince Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von Metternich is born

Goethe: Götz von Berlichingen

1774   Goethe: The Sufferings of young Werther
Caspar David Friedrich is born
J.F.Fries is born

Begin of American Independence War

Jan 22: André-Marie Ampère is born
Wiliam Turner is born
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling is born

1776 entrance into Untergymnasium.
birth of brother Georg Ludwig

Declaration of Independence of USA
Decalration of Human Rights
Benjamin Franklin 1st US ambassador in Paris
May 1: Adam Weishaupt founds the Illuminati in Ingolstadt (Bavaria)

Jan 10: Thomas Paine: Common Sense
Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
Edward Gibbon: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Goethe: Wilhelm Meister
David Hume dies
Amedeo Avogadro is born
Jan 24: E.T.A. Hoffmann is born
Johann Friedrich Herbart is born
Heinrich von Kleist born


Jun 14: Stars and Stripes adopted by Congress as United States flag
Nov 15: U.S. Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation

Jan 2: Daniel Christian Rauch is born
Feb 12: Friedrich de la Motte Fouque is born
Apr 30: Carl Friedrich Gauss is born


France signes a Treaty of Alliance with the Americans

James Cook discovers Hawai
Mar 30: Voltaire dies

1779   Lessing: Nathan the Wise
Goethe: Iphigenie
Feb 14: James Cook killed in Hawai
Friedrich Carl v. Savigny is born
Jun 30: Adam Müller is born
1780 Hegel takes the Landexamen for the first time

Maria Theresia (Austrian Empress) dies
Joseph II begins to rule Austria

Fichte enters Jena theological seminary
Lessing: Education of Mankind (Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts)
Jul 1 [notJun 1]: Carl von Clausewitz is born


Herschel discovers the planet Uranus
May: Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft)
Schiller: The Robbers (Die Räuber)
Lessing dies
Jan 26: Achim von Arnim is born
Jan 30: Adelbert von Chamisso is born


Oct 27: Niccolo Paganini is born

1783 September 20: Hegel's mother dies of "Gallenfieber"; Hegel also is seriously ill with it

End of American Independence War, Sept 3rd: Peace of Paris

Montgolfiers demonstrate their hot-air balloon
Kant: Prolegomena
Oct 29: Jean Le Rond d'Alembert dies

1784 Beginning in the autumn, Hegel is a student at the Obergymnasium

Order of Illuminati of Bavaria is forbidden by Edicts (on June 22, 1784, for its suppression) of the Elector of Bavaria (repeated in March and August 1785)

Fichte breaks off theological studies without completing degree
Kant: Ideas for a universal history
Kant: What is enlightment?
Herder: Ideas for a Philosophy of History (1st part, other in 1785, 1787 and 1791)
Denis Diderot dies
Karl Friedrich Göschel is born


Jan 1: first issue of the Daily Universal Register, later known as The Times, is published in London
Kant: Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals
Jacobi: 'On the teachings of Spinoza' (Begin of the atheism debatte, starting as a debatte between Jacobi and Mendelsohn on Lessing's suposed Spinozism)
Jan 4: Jakob Grimm is born
Feb 21: Karl August Varnhagen is born

1786 Centennial celebration of the Stuttgarter Gymnasium.

Friedrich II of Prussia dies

Mozart: Figaro's wedding
Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science
Reinhold: Letters on the Kantian Philosophy
Moses Mendelsohn dies
Carl Maria von Weber is born


Sep 17: United States Constitution completed

Jan 11: Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus
Kant:Second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason
Friedrich Schiller: Don Carlos
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Don Giovanni
Nov 15: Christoph Wilibald Gluck dies
Mar 16: Georg Ohm is born

1788 September: Hegel leaves the Gymnasium; he gives the Abiturrede.
October: reception in the Stift of Tübingen at the same time as Hölderlin.
Hegel begins his study with philosophical faculty

Jan 28: First penal colony is founded at Botany Bay, Australia

Jan 1: First edition of The Times (previously The Daily Universal) Feb 1: Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patent the steamboat
Fichte accepts position as private tutor to a family in Zürich
Kant: Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft)
J.G.Hamann dies
Arthur Schopenhauer is born


Beginning of the French Revolution
George Washington elected as first US president

Mutiny of the 'Bounty'
Friedrich Schiller becomes Professor of History in Jena
Augustin Louis Cauchy is born

1790 Hegel shares a room in the Stift with Hölderlin and Schelling.
September: Magister-Exam.
Registration in the theological faculty.

District of Columbia formed
Begin of construction of White House

Fichte leaves Zürich for Leipzig, where begins study of Kant
Kant: Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft)
Adam Smith dies
Benjamin Franklin dies
Friedrich List is born

1791 Hegel's later wife, Marie von Tucher, is born

Begin of Haitian Revolution

Fichte travels to Warsaw to seek employment, then to Königsberg to ask Kant for financial support, then to Danzig where he works again as a private tutor
Sept: Kant: On the Failure of All Attempts at a Theodicee (über das Mißlingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodizee)
Reinhold: The Foundation of Philosophical Knowledge
Schiller begins his reading of Kant
Mozart: The Magic Flute - first public performance
Dec 5: W.A. Mozart dies
Jan 15: Franz Grillparzer is born
Apr 27: Samuel Morse is born
Dec 26: Charles Babbage is born
Michael Faraday is born
Leopold Dorotheus von Henning is born


France becomes a Republic
Begin of 1st Coalition war against France
Sept 20: Cannonade of Valmy
French troups conquer Belgium, the Rhinelands and Mainz

Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle composes La Marseillaise aka "Marche pour les armées du Rhin"
Franz Xaver Baron Von Zach: 'The Tables of the Sun'
Claude Chappe successfully demonstrates the first semaphore line, between Paris and Lille
Fichte: Critique of All Revelation (at first assumed to be Kant's work)
F. I. Niethammer, professor of theology and philosophy at Jena, publishes a defence of Fichte's Critique against attacks which had ensued when it was realised that Kant was not its author
Reinhold: Letters on Kantian Philosophy, vol. 2.
Schelling completes his Magisterdissertation
Feb 29: Gioacchino Rossini is born

1793 May: the Archduke visits the Tübinger Stift; revolutionary tendencies are investigated
June: theological disputation.
Starting in July, Hegel is on leave from the Seminary and stays in Stuttgart
Sept 19-20: Konsistorialexamen
October: begins his activity as house tutor with K.F. von Steiger
Hegel converts from Jacobinism to Girondism

Jan 21: Louis XVI guillotined
Jul 13: Marat assassinated
Oct 16: Marie Antoinette executed
"Levee en masse", organized by Lazare Carnot in Fance

In June Fichte lectures at Tübingen. He vists Berne
Kant (Easter): Religion within the Boundary of Mere Reason (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft).
Schiller: On Grace and Dignity (Über Anmut und Würde)


Feb 11: 1st session of US Senate open to the public
Apr 4: Danton guillotined
Jul 28: Robespierre guillotined

Fichte becomes successor of Reinhold as Professor in Jena
Fichte: Grounding of the Entire Doctrine of Science (Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre)
Jan 16: Edward Gibbon dies
May 8: Antoine Lavoisier dies
Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm Hinrichs is born

1795 May: trip to Geneva
Hegel subscribes 'Die Horen'

Directorium in France
"Batavian Republic" created out of French ocupied Netherlands
3rd partition of Poland

Niethammer founds 'Philosophisches Journal', in which many of Fichte's essays would appear
Schiller: Die Horen (until 1797)
Schiller: On the aestetic education of Mankind (in 'Die Horen')
Dec 4: Thomas Carlyle is born

1796 July: hike through the Bernese Alps
August: poem 'Eleusius' to Hölderlin
End of the year: return from Berne to Stuttgart

Nov 17: Catherine the Great of Russia dies

Schiller: On Naive and Sentimental Poetry
Fichte: Foundations of Natural Law
Schelling: On the possibility of a Form of Philosiophy at all
Schelling: Of the I as principle of Philosophy
T.G.von Hippel dies
Knigge dies

1797 January: begins the Hofmeister position that Hölderlin found for him with the wine merchant J.N.Gogel in Frankfurt

May: Napoleon ends 1070 years of independence of Venice, Italy
Peace of Campo Formino between France and Austria

Kant: The Metaphysics of Morals
Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of the Doctrine of Right (Metaphysische Anfangsgrunde der Rechtslehre)
Schelling: Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature
Hölderlin: Hyperion
Tieck: Puss in boots (Der gestiefelte Kater)
Jan 31: Franz Schubert is born
Nov 14: Charles Lyell is born
Dec 13: Heinrich Heine is born

1798 Cart's 'On the former political relationship between Vaud and the City of Berne' published anonymously by Hegel in Frankfurt

Helvetic Republic
Pope emprisoned by the French, Vatican becomes Republic under French influence
Jun 12: French take Malta
July: Napoleon invades Egypt
Congress of Rastatt (until 1799)
2nd Coalition war against France

Alessandro Volta and La Place discover electricity
Hölderlin leaves Frankfurt
Atheimsus debatte about Fichte
Schelling: Of the Worldsoul
Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population
Schiller: Wallenstein
Beethoven: Sinfonie No. 1
Dec 4: Luigi Galvani dies
Apr 26: Eugene Delacroix is born
Eduard Gans is born

1799 January: death of Hegel's father in Stuttgart.
March: Hegel makes the trip back to Stuttgart

December: Napoleon named First Consul of France
Baron Montgelas becomes main advisor of Bavarian King
The Dutch East India Company is dissolved.

July: The Rosetta Stone is discovered
        Meeting of Schelling, Schlegel brothers, Novalis and Tieck in Jena
Schiller moves from Jena to Weimar
        Atheism controversy:
Jan: Fichte: J. G. Fichte's Appeal to the Public concerning the Charge of Making Atheistic Assertions
Mar: Fichte: Juridical Defence of the Editor of the Philosophical Journal against the Charge of Atheism
Aug. Kant: 'Open letter on Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre', repudiating Fichte
Sep: Jacobi: 'Open letter to Fichte', expanded form of a letter sent to Fichte in spring
Reinhold's break with Fichte: due to Jacobi's criticisms, and to his infatuation with Bardili's 'logical realism'
Fichte loses his position at Jena and Fichte moves to Berlin where he gives private lectures

        Schelling: First Plan of a System of the Philosophy of Nature
Schelling: Introduction to the Sketch of a System of Naturphilosophie or on the Concept of Speculative Physics
Herder: Metacritique
Schleiermacher: On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers
Hölderlin: Hyperion, vol. 2
George Washington dies
May 20: Honoré de Balzac is born
May 26: Aleksandr Pushkin is born

1800 Hegel makes a trip to Mainz, which since 1798 belongs to the French Republic

May 15: Napoleon Bonaparte crosses the Alps and invades Italy
Jun 14: Battle of Marengo, Austrian troops defeated
Sep 5: Malta conquered by British
Dec 24: An assault on Napoleon Bonaparte fails in Paris

Invention of the voltaic pile by Alessandro Volta: the first chemical battery
Infrared radiation is discovered by Herschel
Schiller: Wallenstein
Last publication by Kant himself
Fichte: The Closed Commercial State
Fichte: Destiny of Mankind
Schelling: System of Transcendental Idealism
Herder: Kalligone


January: Hegel moves to Jena
September: first philosophical book published, The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy
Aug 27: habilitation submitted in Latin on the orbits of the planets
First meetings with Goethe
Hegel becomes a Privatdozent without Besoldung (remuneration)

Peace of Luneville
Thomas Jefferson inaugurated as President of U.S. in new capital of Washington
Union of Great Britain and Ireland

Fichte: 'A crystal-clear report to the general public concerning the actual essence of the newest philosophy: an attempt to force the reader to understand'. He writes of Schelling as his "spiritual colleague". Nevertheless, beginning of difficulties between Schelling and Fichte
        Schelling: Exposition of My System of Philosophy
Jan 1: Giuseppe Piazzi discovers the first asteroid, Ceres
J. Haydn: The Seasons
F. Schiller: The Maid of Orleans
Novalis dies
Nov 1: Vincenzo Bellini is born
L. Michelet is born

1802 Hegel and F.W.J. Schelling found Critical Journal of Philosophy (until 1803)
Hegel: The Relation of Skepticism to Philosophy, Faith and Knowledge

Mar 25: Peace of Amiens between France and United Kingdom
Aug 2: Plebiscite confirms Napoleon Bonaparte as consul for a lifetime
Sep 11: Italian region of Piedmont becomes a part of France
October: French army enters Switzerland
US Military Academy founded at West Point

Schelling: Giordano Bruno, or On the Divine and Natural Principle of Things
Schelling: Further Presentation of my System of Philosophy
A. Ruge is born
Feb 26: Victor Hugo is born
Jul 24: Alexandre Dumas is born
Heinrich Gustav Hotho is born


Britain declares war on France
Apr 30: U.S. purchases Louisiana Territory and New Orleans from the French
Metternich becomes Austrian ambassador in Berlin

Robert Fulton propels a boat by steam power
J.L. Tieck's translation of Minnelieder leads to the study of old Germanic literature
F. Schiller: Die Braut von Messina
Klopstock dies
Dec 18: Johann Gottfried von Herder dies
May 12: Justus von Liebig is born
Dec 11: Hector Berlioz is born

1804 Hegel becomes member of two societes for Science of Nature
'geognostic voyage' to the Harz mountain, also visits Göttigen and Westphalen

Jan 1: French Saint-Domingue becomes independent Republic of Haiti
Code civil enacted
Napoleon prepares invasion of England
Dec 2: Napoleon crowns himself emperor
Dec 12: Spain declares war on Great Britain

F. Hölderlin's translations of the tragedies of Sophocles into German
Jean Paul: Flegeljahre
F. Schiller: Wilhelm Tell
Schelling: Philosophy and Religion
Schelling: System of Philosophy in General and of the Philosophy of Nature in Particular
Schelling: Propädeutik der Philosophie
Feb 12: Immanuel Kant dies (80)
Jaques Necker dies
Ludwig Feuerbach is born

1805 Hegel named to außerordentliche Professor, without remuneration

3rd coalition war against France
May 26: Napoleon becomes King of Italy
Oct 21: Battle of Trafalgar
Dec 2: Napoleon defeats combined Russo-Austrian forces at Austerlitz

May 9: Schiller dies
Oct 21: Horatio Nelson dies
Apr 2: Hans Christian Andersen is born
Jul 29: Charles Alexis de Tocqueville is born
Mazzini is born
Karl Rosenkranz is born

1806 Oct: completion of the later 'Phenomenology of Spirit' (except the foreword)

Jan 19: United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope
Jan 30: Prussia takes possession of Hannover
Holy Roman Empire dissolved by Emperor Franz II
'Rheinbund' created
Württemberg becomes Kingdom
Metternich becomes Austrian ambassador in Paris
Oct 14: Prussia defeated in Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Oct 27: Napoleon occupies Berlin
Britain declares blockade of French coasts
Nov 21: by the Berlin Decrees, Napoleon begins the "Continental System", closing continental ports to British vessels and and declaring all British ports to be in a state of blockade

J.F. Herbert: German Education
J.G. Fichte: Bericht über die Wissenshaftslehre
May 20: John Stuart Mill is born
John Sterling is born
Max Stirner is born

1807 Jan: finished Preface of 'Phenomenology of Spirit'
Feb 5: birth of his illegitimate son, Ludwig Fischer
March: moves to Bamberg; editor and Redakteur of the Bamberger Zeitung
April: publication of the 'System of Science: First Part: The Phenomenology of Spirit'

French troups occupy Königsberg
Peace of Tilsit between Prussia and France
Prussian Reforms under Prime Minister von Stein
Slave trade is abolished in British empire

Fichte appointed Professor in Königsberg but leaves (for Copenhagen) when French troops threaten to occupy East Prussia. Returns to Berlin after Peace of Tilsit
Garibaldi is born

1808 November: Hegel becomes rector of the Gymnasium in Nürnberg

Jan 1: Importation of slaves into US is banned
Metternich new Austrian Foreign Minister
Congress of Erfurt
Dec 13: Madrid capitulates to Napoleon.

L. van Beethoven, 5th Symphony (op. 67) and 6th, 'Pastoral' Symphony
J.G. Fichte: Address to the German Nation
K.F. Eichhorn: History of German Law
F. Schegel: Language and Wisdom of the Indians
J.F. Fries: New Critique of Reason
Alexander Humboldt: Opinions of Nature
J.W. Goethe: Faust, pt. 1 published as book
Feb 5: Carl Spitzweg is born
Jan 27: David Friedrich Strauss is born


May: Napoleon captures Vienna, is excommunicated, imprisons pope Pius VII
James Madison becomes the fourth President of U.S

Lamarck: Philosophie Zoologique
David Ricardo: The High Price of Bullion or Proof of the Depreciation of Bank Notes
J.W. Goethe: The Elective Affinities
Schelling: Of the Nature of Human Freedom
August Schegel: Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature
May 31: Joseph Haydn dies
Jan 19: Edgar Allan Poe is born
Feb 3: Felix Mendelssohn Bartoldy is born
Feb 12: Charles Darwin is born
Feb 12: Abraham Lincoln is born
Bruno Bauer is born


K.W. von Humboldt as Prussian minister of education reforms the gymnasia and institutes pre-university matriculation
Berlin University founded with J.G. Fichte as rector
Jun 4: Hardenberg is new Prussian Chancellor
Jan 10: Marriage of Napoleon and Josephine is annulled
Feb 11: Napoleon marries Marie-Louise of Austria
July: Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland
Ostfriesland, Oldenburg, Hamburg and Bremen become French
King George III of England recognized as insane

H. von Kleist: Der Prinz von Homburg
J.W. Goethe: Theory of Colours (Farbenlehre)
G.F. Creuzer: Symbolism of the Ancients
Mar 1: Frederic Chopin is born
Robert Schumann is born

1811 September: Hegel marries Marie von Tucher

Mar: Luddites destroy machinery in Nottingham and Yorkshire towns
Turnvater Jahn begins to work in public

Berthold Niebuhr: Roman History
J.W. Goethe: My Life, Poetry and Truth
Adam Weishaupt dies
Oct 22: Franz Liszt is born

1812 1st Volume of 'Science of Logic' published
Hegel's brother Ludwig dies in Russia
First daughter Marie dies 1 month after birth

June 8: U.S. Congress approves war against Britain (the formal declaration is made 19th)
June 24: Napoleon's ill-fated invasion of Russia begins
Aug 16: General William surrenders Detroit to British forces, thus postponing U.S. plan to invade Canada
Sept 14: Moskau occupide by French troups
Oct 19: retreat of Napoleon's "Grand Army" due to Russian resistance, few will return alive
Dec: Prussia and Russia sign Contract of Neutrality

J.G. Fichte: Transcendental Philosophy
J. and W. Grimm: Fairy Tales
P. Laplace: Analytic Theory of Probabilities
Reinhold dies
Feb 7: Charles Dickens is born

1813 Hegel named Schulrat
2nd Volume of 'Science of Logic' published
June 7: son Karl Hegel born

Feb 28: Prussia and Russia alliance
Mar 16: Prussia declares war to France
Oct 16-19: Battle of Nations in Leipzig

Apr 8: Joseph Lagrange dies
May 5: Soren Kierkegaard is born
May 22: Richard Wagner is born
Oct 9: Giuseppe Verdi us born

1814 Sept 24: son Immanuel born

April: Napoleon abdicates
May 30: Napoleon exiled to Elba
Vienna Congress
Restoration of Ferdinand VII to the Throne of Spain
Restoration of the French Bourbon Kings (Luis XVIII)
Dec 24: Treaty of Ghent ends the war between Britain and U.S.

Stephenson adapts the Steam Engine for the Railroad
Görres: Rheinischer Merkur
Madame Germaine de Staël: De l'Allemagne
Jan 27: Johann Gottlieb Fichte dies
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin is born

1815  Hegel visits Munich (München)

Jan 8: before news of peace of Ghent, the battle of New Orleans is fought and the British are defeated within half an hour
March 1: Napoleon comes back to France
Jun 18: Duke of Wellington and Gebhard von Blucher defeat Napoleon at Waterloo; 22nd, Napoleon abdicates for second time, after being given choice of resignation or deposition by the French Chambers
Aug 2: by agreement between Prussia, Austria, Britain and Russia, the imprisonment of Napoleon is left to the British decision and he is banished to St. Helena (where he arrives 17th)
Sep 26: 'Holy Aliance' founded by Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I of Russia
Nov 20: 2nd Peace of Paris
Organization of the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund)
Organization of the German Burschenschaften

Schelling: Ages of the World
T. R. Malthus: An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent
F.K. von Savigny: History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages
Apr 1: Otto von Bismarck is born

1816 Third volume of Science of Logic published
University Professor in Heidelberg

Argentina gains independence from Spain

The "Year Without A Summer", caused by the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption
Niebuhr discovers the Institutes of Gaius in Verona
K.L.v.Haller: Restauration of the Sciences of State, Vol.1
Goethe: Journey to Italy
Schopenhauer: On the sight and Colors

1817 1st edition of the 'Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences'
Coeditor of the Heidelberger Jahrbücher
'Proceedings of the Estates Assembly in the Kingdom of Württemberg 1815-1816'

Mar 4: James Monroe is inaugurated fifth President of U.S
Apr 28: Rush-Bagot Agreement is concluded between Britain and U.S. to limit naval forces on the Great Lakes
Sep 23: by treaty with Britain, Spain agrees to end slave trade
Oct 18: Wartburg Festival reveals revolutionary tendencies of German students who meet at Jena to celebrate anniversaries of Luther's death and of Battle of Leipzig

David Ricardo: Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
July 12: Heny David Thoreau is born
Nov 30: Theodor Mommsen is born

1818 Oct 5: moves to Berlin, succeeding J.G. Fichte as professor
Oct 22: inaugural lecture
Nov 28: Hegel becomes a member of the Gesetzlose Gesellschaft

constitutions in the states of the German southwest
Feb 12: Chile gains its independence from Spain

May 5: Karl Marx is born
May 25: Jacob Burckhardt is born

1819 Hegel visits the island of Rügen

Fries influenced student Karl Ludwig Sand murders the right-wing dramatist August von Kotzebue
Karlsbad Decrees
Jan 17: Simon Bolivar proclaims the Republic of Colombia
Feb 6: Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore

Jun 20: First steam-propelled vessel to cross the Atlantic arrives in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia
Jacobi dies
May 24: later Queen Victoria is born
May 31: Walt Whitman is born
Jun 20: Jacques Offenbach is born
Sep 13: Clara Schumann is born

1820 Fall: Hegel travels the 1st time to Dresden

Feb 6: 86 free African American colonists sail from NY to Freeport, Sierra Leone
Mar 30: Duc de Richelieu re-establishes censorship of French press
Revolutions in Spain, Portugal and Neapel
Argentina establishes penal colony in Falkland Islands

Jan 30: Edward Bransfield discovers Antarctica
Venus de Milo found on island of Melos
Hans Christian Orsted discovers relationship between electricity and magnetism
Malthus: Principles of Political Economy
Friedrich Engels is born

1821 October: publication of 'Philosophy of Right' (Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse and Gundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts)
2nd trip to Dresden
Hegel becomes dean of the philosophical faculty for a one-year term.

Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire, starting the Greek War of Independence

Saint-Simon: On the Industrial System
J. Mill: Autobiography
Goethe: Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre
Feb 23: John Keats dies
Apr 9: Charles-Pierre Baudelaire is born
May 5: Napoleon I dies on St.Helena
Aug 31: Hermann Helmholtz is born
Oct 13: Rudolf Virchow is born
Oct 30: Fyodor Dostojevsky is born
1822 Hegel writes the preface to Hinrich's book on the philosophy of religion
Hallesche Allgemeine Zeitung publishes an attack on Hegel, and Hegel fails in his attempt to get the government to intercede for him
October: 1st trip to Rhinelands, Belgium and Netherlands, visits de Ghert in Brussels

Oct 12: Pedro I declared constitutional emperor of the Brazilian Empire
Dec 14: Congress of Verona ends, having ignored Greek War of Independence
Hardenberg dies, Altenstein remains the only reformer (and only supporter of Hegel) in the Prussian goverment

Hieroglyphs deciphered by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion using the Rosetta Stone
Galileo Galilei's Dialogue taken off of the Roman Catholic Church's list of banned books
Lamarck: Natural History of Invertebrate Animals
July 24: E.T. A. Hoffman dies (46)
Lazare Carnot dies in Magdeburg
Jan 6: Heinrich Schliemann is born
Gregor Mendel is born

1823 trip to Leipzig

Monroe Doctrine

Olbers paradox described by the German astronomer Wilhelm Olbers
Eckermann becomes Goethes's private secretary
Friedrich Schleiermacher: Christian Dogma
Ernst Renan is born

1824 Sept/Oct: travel to Vienna via Dresden and Prague
Nov 4: Hegel writes the Prussian police on behalf of Victor Cousin

Charles X becomes King of France
Nov: in U.S. presidential election none of the four candidates has a majority; House of Representatives elect John Adams as president.

Beethoven: Ninth Symphony
James Mill: Essays on Government
Leopold von Ranke's History of the Roman and Teutonic People, founds modern historiography
J.F. Herbart: Psychology as a Science Mar 2: Bedrich Smetana is born
Mar 12: Gustav Kirchhoff is born
Sep 4: Anton Bruckner is born


Mar 4: John Quincy Adams is inaugurated sixth President of U.S.

Oct 26: Erie Canal opens (passage from Albany, NY to Lake Erie)
Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway (first track in England)
Jan 3: Robert Owen founds America's first utopian society at New Harmony, Indiana
Joseph Smith, founder of Mormons, claims he had his vision
Comte de St. Simon: Nouveau Christianisme
Franz Schubert: 'Death and the Maiden' quartet
Jean Paul dies
Oct 25: Johann Strauss II is born

1826 Hegel: On a Complaint on Account of a Public Slander of the Catholic Religion
Hegel: 'On the Converted' for the Berliner Schnellpost
July 23: Founding of the Jahrbücher fur wissenschaftliche Kritik
Ludwig Fischer leaves the Hegel family (probable date)

University College, London, and Munich University founded
First railway tunnel (Liverpool-Manchester railway)
Franz Xaver von Baader becomes Professor in München
F. Mendelssohn: music for A Midsummer Night's Dream
James Fenimore Cooper: The Last of the Mohicans
Heinrich Heine: Pictures of Travel, I
J. v. Eichendorf: Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts
Jul 4: Thomas Jefferson and John Adams die

1827 2nd, much enlarged edition of the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences
August-October: trip to Paris, vistits Lazare Carnot in Magdeburg, visits Cousin in Paris
returning via Rhineland, Belgium (2nd visit to van Ghert, discusses Ludwig Fisher), Netherlands, Weimar (visits Goethe)
publishes 'On the Episode of the Mahabharata Known as the Bhagavad-Gita by Wilhelm von Humboldt' in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik

Schelling: On History of Modern Philosophy
Heine: Book of Songs (Buch der Lieder)
Mar 5: Pierre Simon Laplace dies (77)
Mar 26: Ludwig van Beethoven dies (56)

1828 Review of Hamann's Writings and Review of Solger in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik

Thomas Carlyle's Essay on Goethe draws attention of English readers to German literature
S.T. Coleridge: Constitution of Church and State
Nov 19: Franz Schubert dies (31)
Feb 8: Jules Verne is born
Mar 20: Henrik Ibsen is born
Sep 9: Leo Tolstoy is born

1829 Hegel publishes his review of Goeschel's 'Aphorisms on Ignorance and Absolute Knowing' in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik
September: 2nd trip to Prague; visit the spa in Karlsbad where he accidentally meets Schelling; on the return trip, he visits Goethe

Mar 4: Andrew Jackson is inaugurated President of U.S.

Aug 9: First steam locomotive runs in U.S. (Baltimore-Ohio)
First edition of Encyclopedia Americana
Joseph Smith publishes 'The Book of Mormon'
James Mill: Analysis of the Human Mind
Friedrich von Schlegel dies
Jan 3: Konrad Duden is born
Feb 2: Alfred Brehm is born

1830 Third edition of the 'Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences'
Hegel is elected rector of the university of Berlin
Mar 6: lunch with the royal family during which there is a remembrance of Hölderlin
June 25: Latin speech on the three hundredth anniversary of the Augsburg Confession

July Revolution in France, Louis Philippe becomes King of France
Belgian Revolution
Oct 4: Creation of the state of Belgium after separation from The Netherlands
First Polish Rebellion
Greece gains independence from the Ottoman empire

First long-distance (Manchester-Liverpool) railway begins operation
Charles Lyell: Principles of Geology
F.J. Stahl: Philosophy of Law
Auguste Comte: Course of Positive Philosophy
Dec 17: Simon Bolivar dies (47)

1831 essay 'On the English Reform Bill of 1831' (1st part published, 2nd part censored)
Ludwig Fischer dies
New reworking of Science of Logic, Volume I, inclluding new preface (appears 1832)
Hegel signs contract for the publication of 'Lectures on the Proof of God' (later published by Marheinke)
Hegel signs contract for a 2nd, reworked edition of the 'Phenomenology of Spirit' (rework was not completed)
Nov 14: Hegel dies


Cholera enters Europe
Honore de Balzac: La Comedie Humaine (The Human Comedy)
Dec 27: Charles Darwin embarks aboard the HMS Beagle
Goethe: Faust II
Berthold Niebuhr dies
Carl von Clausewitz dies
Stein dies
Oct 6: Richard Dedekind is born

1832 A complete edition of Hegel's works ('Freundesausgabe') appears in 21 volumes between 1832 and 1845, published by the 'Freunde des Verewigten'

US Democratic Party founded
Feb 12: Ecuador annexes the Galapagos Islands
Guiseppe Mazzini founds "Young Italy".

Comte: Cours de philosophie positive, 6 vol. (Lectures on the positive philosophy) Goethe: Faust II (published after Goethe's death)
Mar 22: Goethe dies
Jun 6: Jeremy Bentham dies
Jan 6: Gustave Doré is born
Jan 23: Edouard Manet is born
Jan 27: Lewis Carroll is born
Aug 16: Wilhelm Wundt is born


The German Zollverein founded by Friedrich List
Jan 3: Britain seizes control of the Falkland Islands
Apr 3: attempt by revolutionaries in Germany to take over Frankfurt Diet in protest against articles of June 1832 is easily crushed
Dec: General Trades Union in New York links all unions in one organization

Charles Babbage described his Analytical engine
Discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, by Anselme Payen
G.E. Schulze ("Aenesidemus") dies
May 7: Johannes Brahms is born
Oct 21: Alfred Nobel is born
Wilhelm Dilthey is born


Spanish Inquisition suppressed
East India Company monopoly on China trade ended
Fire at the British Houses of Parliament
British Poor Law Amendment Act
Aug 1: Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies

Dec 23: Thomas Malthus dies
Friedrich Schleiermacher dies
Jan 7: Johann Philipp Reis is born
Feb 7: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev is born
Jul 19: Edgar Degas is born
Ernst Haeckel is born



First German railway, Nürnberg-Fürth
David Friedrich Strauss: Das Leben Jesu (Life of Jesus), which holds that none of the Gospels is factually accurate
A. de Tocqueville: De la Democratic en Amerique
J. Grimm: German Mythology
Büchner: Danton's Death
Sep 23: Vincenzo Bellini dies
Wilhelm von Humboldt dies
Nov 30: 'Mark Twain' (pseud. Of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) is born


Mar 6: Fort Alamo falls
Beginning of the Chartist Movement
Communist league formed in Paris

R.W. Emerson's 'Nature' founds Transcendentalism
Karl Immermann: Epigonen
Schopenhauer: Über den Willen in der Natur (On the Will in the nature)
Jan 27: Leopold von Sacher-Masoch is born
Jul 8: Joseph Chamberlain is born
Sri Ramakrishna is born


Victoria crowned Queen of the United Kingdom
Dec 29: King of Hanover dismisses seven professors of Gottingen University, including the brothers Grimm, who oppose his revocation of Constitution

Samuel Morse invents the telegraph
James Dana: System of Mineralogy
Thomas Carlyle: French Revolution
W.H. Prescott: Ferdinand and Isabella
Immanuel H. Fichte founds 'Zeitschrift fur Philosophie'
C. Dickens: Oliver Twist
Feb 10: Alexander Pushkin dies


Start of First British-Afghan War
Altenstein replaced by Eichhorn as Prussian minister of Education (no more protections of Hegelians)

Proteins discovered by Jons Jacob Berzelius
Jan 16: Franz Brentano is born
July 8: Ferdinand von Zeppelin is born
Oct 25: Georges Bizet is born
Ernst Mach is born


Jan 19: British East India Company captures Aden
Jan 20: Battle of Yungay: Chile defeats a Peruvian and Bolivian alliance

First German long distance railway, Leipzig-Dresden
Michael Faraday: Researches in Electricity
Jan 19: Paul Cézanne is born
Mar 21: Modest Mussorgsky is born
Charles S. Peirce is born


Jan 22: British colonists reach New Zealand. Official founding date of Wellington
Friedrich Wilhelm IV becomes new King of Prussia

R. Wagner: Faust overture
J.F. Cooper: The Pathfinder
E.A. Poe: Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque
P.J. Proudhon: What is Property?
May 14: Altenstein dies
May 27: Niccolo Paganini dies
Apr 2: Emile Zola is born
Nov 12: Auguste Rodin is born
Nov 14: Claude Monet is born


Jan 26: United Kingdom occupies Hong Kong

Schelling moves from Munich to Berlin to take Hegel's former seat. His assignment by the new King demands him to "eradicate the Dragon Seed of Hegelianism" by his lectures
Ludwig Feuerbach: Essence of Christianity
Friedrich List: National System of Political Economy
F.List is offered position as chief editor of the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung". When he refuses, the position is offered to Karl Marx
Rudolf Lotze: Metaphysics
David Livingstone begins missionary work in Africa
A.H. Hoffman: Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles
T. Carlyle: On Heroes and Hero-Worship
Marx: Dissertation On Demokrit and Epicur
Kierkegaard: trip to Berlin, hears Schelling
Kierkegaard: Master's Thesis, 'Über den Begriff der Ironie'
May 23: Franz Xaver von Baader dies
Herbart dies
Feb 25: Pierre-Auguste Renoir is born

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